Error message

  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 131 and noscript on line 132. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: link line 138 and head on line 141. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 155. Error code: 41
  • Attribute aria-label redefined on line 234. Error code: 42
  • Specification mandate value for attribute data-pinger-ignore on line 277. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 277 and div on line 283. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 366 and div on line 368. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 373 and div on line 375. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 380 and div on line 382. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 387 and div on line 389. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 394 and div on line 396. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 401 and div on line 403. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 455. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 482 and div on line 484. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 528 and div on line 529. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 578. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 392 and form on line 591. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 635. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 635. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 635 on line 635. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 626 and option on line 635. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 622 and select on line 641. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 609 and div on line 645. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute required on line 709. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 709 and div on line 710. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 716 and div on line 717. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 750. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 750. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 750 on line 750. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 741 and option on line 750. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 737 and select on line 756. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 705 and form on line 814. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 704 and div on line 815. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 695 and div on line 816. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 851. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 851. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 851 on line 851. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 842 and option on line 851. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 838 and select on line 857. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 823 and div on line 861. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 819 and form on line 884. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 932. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 932. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 932 on line 932. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 923 and option on line 932. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 919 and select on line 938. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 905 and div on line 944. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 950 and li on line 952. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 954 and li on line 956. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 953 and ul on line 957. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 949 and div on line 958. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 966 and span on line 967. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: span line 965 and div on line 971. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: br line 979 and div on line 981. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute data-pinger-ignore on line 989. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 961 and form on line 1003. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: ul line 948 and div on line 1005. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 1050. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 1050. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 1050 on line 1050. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 1041 and option on line 1050. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1037 and select on line 1056. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1023 and div on line 1064. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute checked on line 1071. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: br line 1079 and div on line 1081. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute data-pinger-ignore on line 1087. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1078 and form on line 1101. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 1014 and div on line 1102. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 1145. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 1145. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag option line 1145 on line 1145. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: select line 1136 and option on line 1145. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1132 and select on line 1151. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1119 and div on line 1155. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute required on line 1205. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1205 and div on line 1206. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute required on line 1212. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute checked on line 1225. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1225 and li on line 1227. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1229 and li on line 1231. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1228 and ul on line 1232. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1224 and fieldset on line 1233. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: ul line 1223 and div on line 1234. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute selected on line 1301. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1310 and div on line 1314. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1236 and form on line 1343. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: fieldset line 1221 and div on line 1344. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute required on line 1364. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1364 and div on line 1365. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute disabled on line 1410. Error code: 41
  • attributes construct error on line 1410. Error code: 65
  • Couldn't find end of Start Tag button line 1407 on line 1410. Error code: 73
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1406 and button on line 1415. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 1360 and form on line 1417. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1358 and div on line 1418. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 1353 and div on line 1419. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1453 and form on line 1459. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 1448 and div on line 1614. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1645 and li on line 1658. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1667 and li on line 1680. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1689 and li on line 1702. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1688 and ul on line 1707. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1666 and div on line 1709. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1725 and li on line 1738. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1724 and ul on line 1743. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: ul line 1719 and div on line 1745. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1769 and li on line 1782. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1799 and li on line 1812. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1887 and li on line 1900. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1935 and li on line 1948. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1975 and li on line 1988. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 1999 and li on line 2012. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1998 and ul on line 2027. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1974 and div on line 2029. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2045 and li on line 2058. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2067 and li on line 2080. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2089 and li on line 2102. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 2088 and ul on line 2107. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 2066 and div on line 2109. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 2044 and div on line 2124. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: ul line 2039 and div on line 2135. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 2033 and form on line 2137. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 1934 and div on line 2138. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2200 and form on line 2206. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 2195 and div on line 2228. Error code: 76
  • Entity 'nbsp' not defined on line 2253. Error code: 26
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2363. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2384 and form on line 2394. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 2383 and div on line 2427. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2439. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2487. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 2315 and article on line 2496. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2568. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2589 and form on line 2599. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 2588 and div on line 2632. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2644. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2692. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 2520 and article on line 2701. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2773. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2794 and form on line 2804. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 2793 and div on line 2837. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2849. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2897. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 2725 and article on line 2906. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 2978. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 2999 and form on line 3009. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 2998 and div on line 3042. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3054. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3102. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 2930 and article on line 3111. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3183. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 3204 and form on line 3214. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 3203 and div on line 3247. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3259. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3307. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 3135 and article on line 3316. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3388. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 3409 and form on line 3419. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 3408 and div on line 3452. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3464. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3512. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 3340 and article on line 3521. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3593. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 3614 and form on line 3624. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 3613 and div on line 3657. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3669. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3717. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 3545 and article on line 3726. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3798. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 3819 and form on line 3829. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 3818 and div on line 3862. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3874. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 3922. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 3750 and article on line 3931. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4003. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4024 and form on line 4034. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 4023 and div on line 4067. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4079. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4127. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 3955 and article on line 4136. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4208. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4229 and form on line 4239. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: form line 4228 and div on line 4272. Error code: 76
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4284. Error code: 41
  • Specification mandate value for attribute hidden on line 4332. Error code: 41
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: div line 4160 and article on line 4341. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: article line 4149 and div on line 4347. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: article line 3944 and div on line 4350. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: article line 3739 and section on line 4392. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: article line 3534 and div on line 4399. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: article line 3329 and div on line 4401. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4513 and li on line 4527. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4536 and li on line 4550. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4559 and li on line 4573. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4582 and li on line 4596. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4607 and li on line 4621. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4630 and li on line 4644. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4653 and li on line 4667. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4676 and li on line 4690. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4701 and li on line 4715. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4724 and li on line 4738. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4747 and li on line 4761. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4770 and li on line 4784. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4793 and li on line 4807. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4816 and li on line 4830. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4839 and li on line 4853. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4862 and li on line 4876. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4885 and li on line 4899. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4908 and li on line 4922. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4931 and li on line 4945. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4954 and li on line 4968. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 4977 and li on line 4991. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5000 and li on line 5014. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5023 and li on line 5037. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5046 and li on line 5060. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5069 and li on line 5083. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5092 and li on line 5106. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5115 and li on line 5129. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5138 and li on line 5152. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5161 and li on line 5175. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5184 and li on line 5198. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5207 and li on line 5221. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5230 and li on line 5244. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5253 and li on line 5267. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5276 and li on line 5290. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5299 and li on line 5313. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5322 and li on line 5336. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5345 and li on line 5359. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5368 and li on line 5382. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5391 and li on line 5405. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5414 and li on line 5428. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5437 and li on line 5451. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5462 and li on line 5476. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5485 and li on line 5499. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5508 and li on line 5522. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5531 and li on line 5545. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5554 and li on line 5568. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5577 and li on line 5591. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5600 and li on line 5614. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5623 and li on line 5637. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5646 and li on line 5660. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5669 and li on line 5683. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5692 and li on line 5706. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5715 and li on line 5729. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5738 and li on line 5752. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5763 and li on line 5777. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5786 and li on line 5800. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5809 and li on line 5823. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5832 and li on line 5846. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5855 and li on line 5869. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5878 and li on line 5892. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5901 and li on line 5915. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5924 and li on line 5938. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5947 and li on line 5961. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5972 and li on line 5986. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 5997 and li on line 6011. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6020 and li on line 6034. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6043 and li on line 6057. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6066 and li on line 6080. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6089 and li on line 6103. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 6088 and ul on line 6108. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 6065 and div on line 6109. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6122 and li on line 6136. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6145 and li on line 6159. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 6144 and ul on line 6164. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 6121 and div on line 6165. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6176 and li on line 6190. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6199 and li on line 6213. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6222 and li on line 6236. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6245 and li on line 6259. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6268 and li on line 6282. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6291 and li on line 6305. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6314 and li on line 6328. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6337 and li on line 6351. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6360 and li on line 6374. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6383 and li on line 6397. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6406 and li on line 6420. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6429 and li on line 6443. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6452 and li on line 6466. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6475 and li on line 6489. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6498 and li on line 6512. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6521 and li on line 6535. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6544 and li on line 6558. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6567 and li on line 6581. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6590 and li on line 6604. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6613 and li on line 6627. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6636 and li on line 6650. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6659 and li on line 6673. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6682 and li on line 6696. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6705 and li on line 6719. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6728 and li on line 6742. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6751 and li on line 6765. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6774 and li on line 6788. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6797 and li on line 6811. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6820 and li on line 6834. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6843 and li on line 6857. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6866 and li on line 6880. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6889 and li on line 6903. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6912 and li on line 6926. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6935 and li on line 6949. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6958 and li on line 6972. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 6981 and li on line 6995. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7004 and li on line 7018. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7027 and li on line 7041. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7050 and li on line 7064. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7073 and li on line 7087. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7096 and li on line 7110. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7119 and li on line 7133. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7142 and li on line 7156. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7165 and li on line 7179. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7188 and li on line 7202. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7211 and li on line 7225. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7234 and li on line 7248. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7257 and li on line 7271. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7280 and li on line 7294. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7303 and li on line 7317. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7326 and li on line 7340. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7349 and li on line 7363. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7372 and li on line 7386. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7395 and li on line 7409. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7418 and li on line 7432. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7441 and li on line 7455. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7464 and li on line 7478. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7487 and li on line 7501. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7486 and ul on line 7506. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7463 and div on line 7507. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7518 and li on line 7532. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7541 and li on line 7555. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7540 and ul on line 7560. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7517 and div on line 7561. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7572 and li on line 7586. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7595 and li on line 7609. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7618 and li on line 7632. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7641 and li on line 7655. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7640 and ul on line 7660. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7617 and div on line 7661. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7672 and li on line 7686. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7695 and li on line 7709. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: input line 7718 and li on line 7732. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7717 and ul on line 7737. Error code: 76
  • Opening and ending tag mismatch: li line 7694 and div on line 7738. Error code: 76
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Vincent Young, M.D., Ph.D.

Professor
734-764-2237

Appointments

Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases Division
Department of Microbiology and Immunology

Areas of Interest

Microbial ecology of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

Research in the Young lab is directed at understanding the role of bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and how they influence the health status of the host. To this end, we study the role of what would traditionally be considered “pathogenic bacteria” in gastrointestinal illness, with a particular emphasis on Clostridium difficile . In addition, we also examine how the population structure of the indigenous GI microbiota can influence the host-pathogen interaction and how changes in the community structure of the indigenous microbiota itself can lead to pathogenic states. This research is being conducted both with material from human subjects as well as animal models of disease.

Published Articles or Reviews

1. Koenigsknecht, M. J., C. M. Theriot, I. L. Bergin, C. A. Schumacher, P. D. Schloss, and V. B. Young. 2015. Dynamics and Establishment of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Murine Gastrointestinal Tract. Infect Immun 83:934-41 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534943

2. Leslie, J. L., S. Huang, J. S. Opp, M. S. Nagy, M. Kobayashi, V. B. Young, and J. R. Spence. 2015. Persistence and toxin production by Clostridium difficile within human intestinal organoids result in disruption of epithelial paracellular barrier function. Infect Immun 83:138-45. PMCID:PMC4288864 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312952

3. Leslie, J. L., and V. B. Young. 2015. The rest of the story: the microbiome and gastrointestinal infections. Curr Opin Microbiol 23C:121-125. PMCID:PMC4324160 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461582

4. Leslie, J. L., and V. B. Young. 2015. A whole new ball game: Stem cell-derived epithelia in the study of host-microbe interactions.Anaerobe 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26549696

5. Rao, K., and V. B. Young. 2015. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Management of Clostridium difficile Infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 29:109-122. PMCID:PMC4328137 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25677705

6. Seekatz, A. M., J. Aas, C. E. Gessert, T. A. Rubin, D. M. Saman, J. S. Bakken, and V. B. Young. 2014. Recovery of the Gut Microbiome following Fecal Microbiota Transplantation. MBio 5
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24939885

7. Seekatz, A. M., C. M. Theriot, C. T. Molloy, K. L. Wozniak, I. L. Bergin, and V. B. Young. 2015. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Eliminates Clostridium difficile in a Murine Model of Relapsing Disease. Infect Immun 83:3838-46. PMCID:PMCPMC4567621 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26169276

8. Seekatz, A. M., and V. B. Young. 2014. Clostridium difficile and the microbiota. J Clin Invest:1-8 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25036699

9. Shreiner, A. B., J. Y. Kao, and V. B. Young. 2015. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 31:69-75. PMCID:PMC4290017 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394236

10. Theriot, C. M., M. J. Koenigsknecht, P. E. Carlson, Jr., G. E. Hatton, A. M. Nelson, B. Li, G. B. Huffnagle, Z. L. J, and V. B. Young. 2014. Antibiotic-induced shifts in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome increase susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection. Nat Commun 5:3114. PMCID:PMC3950275 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24445449

11. Theriot, C. M., and V. B. Young. 2015. Interactions Between the Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Clostridium difficile. Annu Rev Microbiol 69:44561 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26488281

12. Theriot, C. M., and V. B. Young. 2014. Microbial and metabolic interactions between the gastrointestinal tract and Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes 5:86-95. PMCID:PMC4049944 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24335555

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