Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI)

Emotion Regulation and Mania Risk

The Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI) was developed in tandem with an Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings (ICM; Mansell et al., 2007), to measure extreme appraisals of internal states. According to the ICM, when people vulnerable to mood swings appraise changes to internal states (such as increased/decreased energy, feeling happier or feeling sadder) in extreme ways this drives attempts to change internal states in line with the nature of that appraisal. For example, a positive appraisal (‘When I feel full of energy, the world is full of unlimited opportunities for me’) might lead to attempts to upregulate energy levels, whereas a negative appraisal (‘When I feel full of energy, this means I am about to have a breakdown’) might lead to attempts to downregulate energy levels. This the leads to further internal state changes, which might again be appraised in an extreme positive or negative way, proposed to lead to the mood dysregulation characteristic of conditions such as bipolar disorder. However, despite theory and evidence supporting its pertinence for mood difficulties (e.g., Dodd et al., 2011), the HAPPI has 61 items and this makes leads to practical limitations in its use in both research and clinical practice. Additionally, although the ICM proposes an interaction between appraisals and regulatory attempts, no research has directly investigated whether such attempts (e.g., emotion regulation strategies) moderate the association between appraisals and affective outcomes (emotion and mood). In this project we will: 1) determine the factor structure of the HAPPI-61, 2) Reduce the number of items on the HAPPI-61, 3) Assess the validity of the short version of the HAPPI, 4) Investigate whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the association between the HAPPI and affective outcomes. This is study is led by Dr. Sarah Sperry. Collaborating researchers are Dr. Alysson Dodd and Dr. Tamsyn Van Rheenen.