Cancer immunology has been a longstanding strength of the Department of Surgery and remains an important focus of our research. Many efforts center on the body's immune response to cancer and how immune-based therapies can better harness this defense system to fight the disease.
Immunotherapy has proven effective for many patients and, still, its potential has yet to be fully realized. Our faculty, renowned for their work in this field, aim to do just that, investigating the mechanisms of cancer immunosuppression and treatment resistance, such as:
- Strategies cancer cells use to avoid immune detection, and the molecular mechanisms and markers, including PD-L1, PD-1 and regulatory and other types of T cells, that contribute to immune suppression and tumor response, and resistance, to immunotherapy
- Biomarker discovery to improve the immune recognition of cancer, including through cryoablation, or freezing of tumors. The approach has shown promise in early clinical trials in patients with breast cancer
- How tumor cells interact with their microenvironment, which includes many types of immune cells that cancer cells recruit to support their growth
Additional Molecular Biology Work
Department of Surgery faculty are working on many other facets of cancer and tumor biology, including:
- Identifying diagnostic and predictive markers using serum proteomic and tissue microarray strategies. These markers can aid risk stratification and treatment planning and evaluation in multiple types of cancers
- Understanding changes in gene expression that lead to development of lung and esophageal cancers and identification of markers of early-stage, aggressive disease to help guide more personalized treatment for patients
- Discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents, including several based upon natural compounds
- Development of implantable scaffolds to attract and trap metastatic circulating tumor cells to slow cancer's spread
- Fertility preservation techniques for young breast cancer patients
- Discovery of the pathways that cancer cells use to repair their DNA — a key survival mechanism — in treatment-resistant pediatric neuroblastoma. This insight now is providing a new target for drug development efforts.
Improving Care Delivery and Outcomes
Health services research within the Department and through numerous collaborations and partnerships probes a wide range of issues that impact patient care and outcomes. Current investigations focus on:
- Primary care and specialist communications, patient decision-making, resource utilization, the impact of policy changes, and disparities in care and outcomes
- Outcomes and comparison of different treatment approaches, such as hyperthermal intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and new strategies to improve nutrition before and after surgery for esophageal cancer
- Prediction of complications and prognosis after cancer surgery as well as the use of analytical morphomics, that is, computer algorithms and image analyses to predict surgical outcomes and help patients improve readiness for surgical procedures
- Outcomes and patient-centered, value-based care for colorectal cancer
- Reducing opioid prescriptions and the risk of addiction in surgical patients
Research Training for the Future
With support from a National Institutes of Health T32 Training Grant, our faculty help ensure ongoing discovery through our Surgical Oncology Research Training Program, which includes training in tumor biology and fundamentals of surgery research.