George A. Mashour, M.D., Ph.D.

Michigan Neuroscience Institute Affiliate
Chair, Department of Anesthesiology
Robert B. Sweet Professor of Anesthesiology
Faculty, Neuroscience Graduate Program
Professor of Neurosurgery and Pharmacology
Founding Director, Michigan Psychedelic Center

1500 E Medical Center Dr.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109


Areas of Interest

Dr. Mashour is an anesthesiologist and NIH-funded neuroscientist who is internationally recognized for his work on consciousness. He studies consciousness using computational models, experimental models, translational studies in healthy volunteers, and clinical research in surgical patients. He also has expertise in promoting translational research.

Specifically, his interests lie in:

  • multidisciplinary approaches to the study of consciousness (Network mechanisms of consciousness and unconsciousness, intraoperative awareness and metrics of consciousness, and interfaces of sleep neurobiology and general anesthesia), and 
  • Perioperative neurologic outcomes (e.g., stroke, nerve injury, postoperative visual loss)


Mashour received his M.D. and Ph.D. in neuroscience at Georgetown University and was a Fulbright Scholar in the neurosciences at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in Berlin. He completed his residency and chief residency in anesthesiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Mashour founded the Center for Consciousness Science at the University of Michigan as well as the Michigan Psychedelic Collaborative. Mashour has received numerous institutional and national awards, including election as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and election to the National Academy of Medicine. He serves on the board of the International Anesthesia Research Society and is currently President of the Association of University Anesthesiologists.

Published Articles or Reviews

  • Duan Li, Phillip Vlisides, George MashourDynamic reconfiguration of frequency-specific cortical coactivation patterns during psychedelic and anesthetized states induced by ketamine. 2022, NeuroImage – Article.
  • Zirui Huang, Vijay Tarnal, Phillip Vlisides, Ellen Janke, Amy McKinney, Paul Picton, George Mashour, Anthony Hudetz. Anterior insula regulates brain network transitions that gate conscious access. 2021 Cell Reports – Article.
  • Alejandra Mondino… George Mashour, Giancarlo Vanini. Glutamatergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus promote wakefulness, destabilize NREM sleep, suppress REM sleep, and regulate cortical dynamics. 2021, Journal of Neuroscience – Article.
  • George Mashour, Pietr Roelfsema, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Stanislas Dehaene. Conscious processing and the global neuronal workspace hypothesis. 2020, Neuron  Review. 

Web Sites