Anne Sales

Anne Sales, PhD, RN

Professor of Learning Health Sciences
Collaborative Lead for Implementation
Director, Clinical Quality Training, Quality Department, Michigan, Medicine
Research Scientist, Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System
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Kathie Karagiannis,


Dr. Sales is a Professor in the Department of Learning Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, and Research Scientist at the Center for Clinical Management Research at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System. Her training is in sociology, health economics, econometrics, and general health services research. Her current work involves theory-based design of implementation interventions, including understanding how feedback reports affect provider behavior and through behavior change have an impact on patient outcomes, and the role of social networks in uptake of evidence based practices and implementation interventions. She also leads a Partnered Evaluation Initiative funded by the VA Office of Nursing Services, evaluating the implementation and effectiveness of VA national nursing initiatives. She is co-Editor-in-Chief of Implementation Science, together with Michel Wensing of Heidelberg University in Germany, and Associate Chair of the Department of Learning Health Sciences for Educational Programs and Health System Innovation.

Dr. Anne Sales teaches LHS 621: Implementation Science in Health 1. 

Areas of Interest

Research and scholarly interests: Implementation science, quality improvement, health services research, health care organizations, health care workforce

Subject-matter expertise: Implementation of evidence based practice in clinical settings; cardiovascular care; long term care; organizational readiness to change assessment; mixed methods research; nurse staffing and patient outcomes

Other professional highlights:

  • Co-lead planning committee for PhD program in Health Infrastructure and Learning Systems
  • Co-Editor in Chief, Implementation Science
  • Core Faculty, Mentored Training in Dissemination and Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC)
  • Former Chair, Institute Advisory Board, Institute for Health Services and Policy Research, Canadian Institutes for Health Research
  • Former Deputy Director, VA Inpatient Evaluation Center (IPEC)
  • Canada Research Chair in Interdisciplinary Healthcare Teams, University of Alberta, 2007-2010


  • Sales, PI (Ersek and Intrator, co-PIs) 10/2015-09/2020 QUE 15-288, VA QUERI Program $3,982,173 Implementing Goals of Care Conversations with Veterans in VA LTC Settings Role: PI (30%)
  • Manojlovich, PI 09/2014-09/2018 R01HS22305-01A1, AHRQ $1,626,447 The effect of health information technology on healthcare provider communication Role: Co-investigator (10%)
  • Sales, PI 10/2014-09/2016 NCE 13-429, VA QUERI/Office of Nursing Services $872,000 VA Nursing: Effectiveness and Entry (VAE2) Role: PI (25%)
  • Iwashyna, PI 09/1/2011-08/30/2015 IIR 11-109-1, VA HSR&D $716,032 Long term outcomes of sepsis in VHA Role: Co-PI (10%)
  • Iwashyna/Nallomothu, co-PIs 10/1/2013-9/30/2016 IIR 13-079-2, VA HSR&D $1,035,685 Recovery after in hospital cardiac arrest: late outcomes and utilization: ResCU Role: Co-Investigator (10%)

Published Articles or Reviews

Selected publications:

  • Sales AE, Ersek M, Intrator OK, Levy C, Carpenter JG, Hogikyan R, Kales HC, Landis-Lewis Z, Olsan T, Miller SC, Montagnini M, Periyakoil VS, Reder S. Implementing goals of care conversations with veterans in VA long-term care setting: a mixed methods protocol. Implement
  • Skolarus TA, Sales AE. Using implementation science to improve urologic oncology care. Urol Oncol. 2016 Sep;34(9):384-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.05.022. Review. PubMed PMID: 27401405.
  • Robinson CH, Annis AM, Forman J, Krein SL, Yankey N, Duffy SA, Taylor B, Sales AE. Factors that affect implementation of a nurse staffing directive: results from a qualitative multi-case evaluation. J Adv Nurs. 2016 Aug;72(8):1886-98. doi: 10.1111/jan.12961. PubMed PMID: 27030070.
  • Sales A. Generating and using evidence: reflections from the perspective of implementation. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 May;73:6-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2015.12.012. PubMed PMID: 26883637
  • Brehaut JC, Colquhoun HL, Eva KW, Carroll K, Sales A, Michie S, Ivers N, Grimshaw JM. Practice Feedback Interventions: 15 Suggestions for Optimizing Effectiveness. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):435-41. doi: 10.7326/M15-2248. PubMed PMID: 26903136
  • Straus SE, Sales A, Wensing M, Michie S, Kent B, Foy R. Education and training for implementation science: our interest in manuscripts describing education and training materials. Implement Sci. 2015 Sep 28;10:136. doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0326-x. PubMed PMID: 26416302; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4585996.
  • Padek M, Colditz G, Dobbins M, Koscielniak N, Proctor EK, Sales AE, Brownson RC. Developing educational competencies for dissemination and implementation research training programs: an exploratory analysis using card sorts. Implement Sci. 2015 Aug 12;10:114. doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0304-3. PubMed PMID: 26264453; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4534127.
  • Sales A. Nurse staffing matters: now what? BMJ Qual S
  • Sales AE, Fraser K, Baylon MA, O'Rourke HM, Gao G, Bucknall T, Maisey S. Understanding feedback report uptake: process evaluation findings from a 13-month feedback intervention in long-term care settings. Implement Sci. 2015 Feb 12;10:20. doi: 10.1186/s13012-015-0208-2. PubMed PMID: 25884696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4331147.
  • Sales AE, Schalm C, Baylon MA, Fraser KD. Data for improvement and clinical excellence: report of an interrupted time series trial of feedback in long-term care. Implement Sci. 2014 Nov 11;9:161. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0161-5. PubMed PMID: 25384801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4230368.

Full List of Publications