Clinical Outcomes Research

PM&R is home to the Center for Clinical Outcomes Development and Application, or CODA, which focuses primarily on the development and application of new tools that can be used to evaluate important health outcomes. 


To achieve excellence in measurement development, selection, and application to improve clinical health research and care. 


Measurement excellence in service of improving health related quality of life (HRQOL).


  • To provide expert consultation for measurement selection and application to evaluate clinical questions and interventions.
  • To develop new measures using state-of-the-art methods that maximize measurement validity, precision, sensitivity, efficiency, and clinical relevance.
  • To utilize novel measurement systems and strategies to inform the creation and refinement of interventions to improve the HRQOL of those we care for. 


The Center for Clinical Outcomes Development (CODA)'s research funding currently exceeds $8,000,000. Funding sources include the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR), the national Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases(NIAMS), the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), as well as the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDDR), the Department of Defense (DoD), the Michigan Alzheimer's Disease Center (MADC), MCubed, CHDI, and a donation from a not for profit organization (501(c)3).